Other Male-related issues

    Varicocele: This is where the veins around the testis are increased in size and engorged. They : This is where the veins around the testis are increased in size and engorged. They can be felt on examination and may lead to groin/testicular discomfort and pain. Varicocele are more common in men with infertility, but currently there is no scientific evidence that treating varicocele surgically will improve fertility, as measured by the pregnancy rate, so we don not recommend it.

   Vitamins and anti-oxidants: There have been some claims in the past about the benefit of : There have been some claims in the past about the benefit of these drugs in cases of male factor infertility. However, the scientific evidence is very clear that they are of no use and will not improve fertility.

   There are two types of conditions which result in no sperm being in the ejaculate. Either no sperm is being produced by the testis, or whilst sperm is produced, there is a blockage stopping the sperm.

   In some men the sperm passes into the bladder at ejaculation rather than out (retrograde ejaculation).

   Other causes include hormonal imbalances, chromosome abnormalities , and a special type of carrier status for Cystic Fibrosis.

    Depending on the cause, treatment is either by treating the cause such as removing an obstruction or hormone treatment, or by retrieving sperm for use in IVF techniques . Obtaining sperm from the testis is done by a simple procedure under local or general anaesthetic. Such sperm is then used for a special form of test-tube baby treatment, called ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection). In ICSI a single sperm is injected into the egg to fertilise it and make an embryo.