Antenatal Medicine

    Obstetrics has changed its emphasis from maternal disease to early detection and prevention of maternal and fetal problems. Antenatal management is thus used to ensure that:

    •  regular assessment is made on mother and fetus to detect any abnormalities that could harm either party

    •  the mother is prepared for labour and motherhood, both physically and psychologically

Screening tests not directly related to pregnancy are often carried out during ante-natal screening, for example, cervical smears. This opportunistic approach is undertaken because the mother may not attend conventional screening appointments.

Diagnosis of Prgnancy

The diagnosis of pregnancy requires a multifaceted approach using 3 main diagnostic tools. These are history and physical examination, laboratory evaluation, and ultrasonography. Currently, physicians may use all of these tools to diagnose pregnancy at early gestation and to help rule out other pathologies .

Antinatal diagnosis methods

-An important method for genetic diseases by analysis of amplified DNA.

-Chorion biopsy in early pregnancys a method of diagnosis for inherited disorders.

-Rapid prenatal diagnosis of sickle cell anemia by a new method of DNA analysis.

-Prenatal diagnosis of fetal RhD stutus by molecular analysis of maternal plasma.

-Prevalence of 22q11 microdelations in DiGeorge-and velocardiofacial syndroms:implications for genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis.

-Alpha-fetoprotein in the antenatal diagnosis of anecephaly and spina bifida.

-Prenatal diagnosis of sickle cell anaemia and thalassaemia by analysis of fetal cells in maternal blood.

-Antenatal diagnosis of sickle cell anaemia by DNA analysis of amniotic fluid cells.

-Prenatal diuagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis with a polymerase-chain-reaction test on amniotic fluid.

-Carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis in Duchenne and Becker muscular dustrophy families,using dinucleotide repeat polymorphisms.